Ancient History – Athens

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Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).

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Get The Aid Of A Advertising And Marketing Company

When you have 3 bedroom apartments for sale, you might want to start using a property marketing company to ensure that your residences are going to be sold speedily. These companies possess all the resources required to advertise your residences and ensure you dig up the appropriate buyers.

Nowadays, it can be challenging for any buyer to locate the correct house and then for the seller to obtain the suitable buyer. Presently there are so many different houses sold at any time, therefore it may be nearly impossible for someone to locate the ideal place. As opposed to basically placing an advertisement for the condominiums on the internet and waiting for anyone to notice it, if you use a marketing company you can find they’ll guide you in finding buyers for every single one of your apartments quickly. They’ll be ready to sift through the potential buyers to make sure they’ll have the ability to pay for the residence and that they’re going to end up being the people you desire moving into your own residences. For instance, in case you own a significant, set of condominiums, you’re most likely going to prefer customers that do not have any kind of a criminal history. A marketing business will help you on this.

In case you are selling your own residences, never strive to complete it on your own. Let a marketing business aid you so that you can choose the best purchasers swiftly.

Why Many Choose 25 ACP Ammunition Over Other Choices

For those who own an early blowback pistol, a gun that fails to include a breech locking mechanism, you should consider purchasing bulk 25 ACP ammo. The straight-walled, semi-rimmed cartridge was first offered to the public back in 1905. A creation of John Browning, the particular gun cartridge has a recessed extractor groove style and design to guarantee the extractor grabs this ammo cartridge correctly. The smallest centerfire handgun round presently being made, this type of cartridge is intended for semi-automatic handguns and is a good choice for people enthusiastic about purchasing a pistol for self defense reasons, since consistency is a problem with some rimfire gun cartridges.

You can quite easily carry a pistol using this kind of ammunition inside a handbag and / or jean pocket and also users really like that they may select from different loads, making it possible for an individual to choose the proper round penetration and also expansion for their particular demands. Individuals must always buy 25 ACP ammo and then spend time evaluating the various types to determine which they will be comfortable with. Many companies supply the ammunition in varying round amounts. If an individual purchases in big amounts, the purchase price per round decreases considerably. If an individual purchases twenty-five rounds, they might discover they are having to pay twice the purchase price for every round than when they buy one thousand rounds at the same time. Take this into account as you go to purchase as you never want to spend more than you really need to.

Athens – The Destination

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Athens was named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, which is certainly fitting for the birthplace itself. Evidence of its ancient heyday is everywhere, in the remnants of monuments, statuary and sacred sites that are still revered as survivors of one of history’s most important eras.

A Poseidon adventure in art

In Greek mythology, Poseidon is the god of sea, so it is only fitting that the astoundingly wrought bronze statue of him was raised from the bottom of the Aegean Sea, where it lay for centuries after a shipwreck off the Cape of Artemision. The two-meter tall figure stands with arms extended and leaning forward on its left leg. The right hand once held a trident, and the unknown sculptor clearly was a master in accurately duplicating the complicated balancing act that goes into the seemingly simple motion of throwing a spear.

This work of art is one of the many stunning bronzes at the National Archeological Museum in Athens. The museum’s collection – which includes pieces that date all the way back to the prehistoric period – offers the best collection of Greek art in the world. Renovations closed the museum for a year and half, but it was reopened just in time for the 2004 Olympic Games.

At 260 feet above the city, the Acropolis (“high city”) is not only the highest point in Athens, but for many people it is the high point of any visit to Greece. It is the oldest known settlement in Greece and was a sacred site for ancient Athenians.

During the period of 448 to 420 B.C., the distinguished Athenian statesman Pericles commissioned the construction of four new monuments on the Acropolis at the site of former ruins. The Athenian sculptor Phidias presided over the construction and interior design. The Ionic Erechtheum includes the Porch of Caryatids, with its column in the shape of monumental female figures that identify remains a mystery. The Ionic Temples of Athena Nike, dedicated to the cult of Athena as the goddess of victory, was built during the Peloponnesian War, its frieze depicts the Greek victory over the Persians in the battle of Plataea. The Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis with rows of both Doric and Ionic columns, replaced an earlier version destroyed by the Persians. And of course, the Acropolis remains home to what’s left of the Parthenon.

The Parthenon, designed by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates, took 15 years to complete. It was the closest to Pericles’ heart: Among various friezes depicting life among gods, the large statue of Athena represented his homage to the goddess and to the greatness of Athens.

Even in A.D. 131, savvy developers like the Roman Emperor Hadrian recognized the importance of signage. “This is the city of Hadrian and not of Theseus,” reads the inscription on Hadrian’s arch, situated at the foot of the Acropolis and once the marker between Hadrianopolis and the Athens city limits. The side facing the Acropolis and ancient Athens reads, ” This is Athens, the city of Theseus.”

Like all the surrounding monuments and the Athens infrastructure itself, Hadrian’s Arch has undergone a major facelift. The 60-foot high archway, constructed of Pentelic marble, upheld by columns with Corthinian capitals and topped by a series of Corinthians columns, lost a bit of structural stability in the mid-18th century, when 8 of its columns were removed.

Restorers shored up the arch, cleaned away centuries of pollution and repaired its cracks, just in time for the 2004 Olympic Games.

The Evzones

The Evzones were once the elite soldiers of the Greek army. Today they are the presidential guards, a ceremonial unit that maintains watch over The Parliament, The Presidential Mansion and The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The soldiers wear a traditional and highly photogenic uniform comprising a scarlet cap with a long black tassel, a cotton tunic, black knee tassels above white stockings, red clogs with black pompons and a woolen kilt called a fustanella. The fustanella has 400 pleats, one for each year that the Greeks were on the occupation of the Ottoman Empire. Bearing leather cartridge belts and rifles with a bayonet, the soldiers maintain strict physical discipline as they stand at attention and resist tourists’ attempts to distract them.

A changing of guard is performed daily before the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, but on Sundays, the complete ceremony – involving an army band and dozens of soldiers – is conducted.

Alice in Wonderland

Imagine Alice in Wonderland’s tumble into a magical world, and you will have an idea what this-off-beaten-path attraction in the Village of Paiania is like. Far larger than a rabbit hole, Koutouki Cave is a natural wonder that will awe you with its colors and formations. In 1926, a goat disappeared from its herd where it was grazing on the slope of Mount Ymittos. A search turned up a small crevice, and a brave soul descended by rope into the abyss below. The goat had not survived the fall, but its intended rescuer returned with a story of a beautiful underground chamber.

The vertical cave consists of a 38.5 meter shaft that opens onto a large cavern with a diameter of about 60 meters. Guided tours take visitors in through a man-made entrance and lead them on a path through stalactites and stalagmites formed by mineral deposits from water seeping through the limestone of the mountain. The tour ends with a light show accompanied by classical music. It’s just a short taxi ride from Athens to nearby Paiania.

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In Rerms of Being a Trucker, Anything You Don’t Know May Harm You

Lots of people are employed in the delivery sector in the US right now, and many of these individuals function as truck drivers. Men and women typically go into this particular job with lots of misunderstandings. They assume they are going to invest the majority of their day behind the wheel, operating as their own employer and playing music, publications on tape or just experiencing the tranquility. While there is a great deal of truth to this, there’s also downsides to this career many do not stop and think about. Drivers often start extremely early in the day, long before the sun arises. In fact, some individuals end up working through the night and then rest throughout the day. Furthermore, the amount of time invested traveling means the driver is at risk of getting involved in an collision, one that might turn out to be their fault. Each year, in excess of 300,000 incidents including a semi occur, and roughly 4,800 driver operators lose their lives. Additionally, the semi driver could be liable should they bring about a collision, and this is in particular of worry for those who function as 3rd party personnel. Income can be hard to estimate, because many employers calculate by the mile, and motorists cannot always predict driving issues or the the weather. They’re just a couple of many points individuals need to consider prior to seeking work in this field. You can easily read more about this subject at www.mbpersonalinjurylaw.com. Here you will find a substantial amount of information on a number of topics of interest for you. Make time to go to the internet site and learn more now.

A Great Way to Make Sure You Maintain Fantastic Relationships with Your Friends and Family

You’ve seen families that rarely speak to one another, and also would like to stay away from the practice of this type of circumstance inside of your own household, especially since you are being employed in a different city. There could possibly be alternative ideas to help keep the unity connected with your loved ones unchanged, though one method that it is possible to absolutely prevent generating friction is actually available for you to use. What might it turn out to be? Never ask them to assist you to move. No one within the home’s ranks. Never ever. It doesn’t matter if you are simply shifting a few miles – you’re better off employing one of several qualified moving services in Chicago including Reebie Allied storage and moving company than you might be to attempt to ask your own brother-in-law sporting a bad back to show up along with his troubled pickup.

Why? One reason is always that whenever people who find themselves certainly not professionals as well as that aren’t taught to accomplish this sort of critical task start working jointly, things frequently go awry. Subsequently, once they do, men and women start putting guilt. When the fault match starts, next tempers frequently flare. This can be usually the stage associated with no return, the main one in which people start dredging their own remembrances pertaining to outdated hurts and even past imagined slights, and the next thing you know? You’ve got a family unit divide. Words were used which are difficult to dismiss and also tougher to forgive. You’d have been so much safer to have used some sort of trusted moving company out of amid the many Chicago movers available instead of try to conserve some money by taking advantage involving family.

Having any specialist, you can let them know just what you need, precisely what matters, and even what doesn’t. You may also investigate their particular personal references, browse the terms and conditions with their contract, and also negotiate with no anxiety about hurt thoughts when it comes to precisely what it really is that you might want and wish. You may make arrangements with regard to storage without forcing a person’s cousin to park her car outside in the snow. You can trust that your moving workforce definitely will show up on shifting day, willing, and also have no concern they injured their back carrying out yard work, or maybe drank a lot the very night before. Retain specialists, it is a determination you might never regret.

Intelligent People Understand That They Can Under No Circumstances Possess Enough Funds

In certain circles, it can be trendy to generally act as if cash is passé. These men and women might affect a posture that delivers the subtle feeling that they consider the hunt for currency to generally be vulgar. That is fine and dandy for many who were created with the familiar “silver spoon” within their mouth, or perhaps that actually benefit from the personality known as starving artist. Everybody else on earth, nevertheless, recognizes that their own need for funds is sure to be ongoing, and additionally that they must save for the future, potentially for items they don’t really even yet envision, like their particular unborn offspring’s higher education, or their own personal retirement. Revenue grants nice things, be they assets, the opportunity to travel, or perhaps top quality medical care. Regardless of how much currency one has, far more is normally much better.

This thus raises the concern known as what a person might do in order to increase his income. There are lots of things that the ordinary individual can do. The accessible alternatives often depend on the sector within which an individual works. Somebody within the plastics field, by way of example, might be able to make more money if they went for seminars for injection molding, and also then became certified to function inside that specific area. Somebody who has robust interaction as well as business presentation expertise might choose to work for an organization which offers scientific molding seminars to varied production facilities. Somebody else working in the identical business, whom perhaps does a great job at authored communication, might wish to write some sort of guide for some individuals who will be taking seminars for injection molding.

Additionally, injection molding seminars besides, other ways that anyone can easily enhance her or his income is to formulate passive earnings sources, like by way of YouTube videos, or via a blog site. They may try beginning their particular organization independently, or perhaps getting a 2nd job, when entrepreneurship seems too challenging. Many people may well make an effort to exploit his or her hobbies, trying to play guitar as well as singing songs for the actual crowds walking by within the roadways associated with the bustling urban centers, or perhaps through providing their professional services as being a tour guide, dog instructor or cat groomer. Ultimately, regardless of what you do to be able to make additional money, it can be vital to experience a plan for making it grow when you have it, including by purchasing CDs or even buying mutual funds.

Seeing the Sights of Athens Through Taxi Tours

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There is no denying how Athens is one of the most important sites in the world for political, economic and aesthetic advancement and enhancement. For many people, it IS the most significant place in the world, period. And this birthplace of western philosophy seems to have fanned its mysticism throughout the ages. Today, Athens is still one of the most visited sites in the world. Many people want to retrace the footsteps of famous philosophers, writers and artists. Not to mention that Athens has a rugged beauty that merits separate praise.

This busy city is made up of twelve hills, seven of which play a historical role in Athens’ rise. Acropolis and Lycavittos are the two most prominent as it is where most of the important historical landmarks such as the Parthenon, Temple of Athena, Theatre of Dionysius and Temple of Olympian Zeus is found. Being made up of seven hills though, Athens is a difficult place to tour if you’re planning to do it via foot. Unless you plan to isolate yourself to a particular section throughout your trip, let’s say in Acropolis, for example, then conquering it via foot would be fine. But if you want an overall tour of the area, trekking it just won’t do especially when there’s a time element involved. You can rely on their Metro train system which is quite effective and cheap to boot. One can take you to the city center for €6. For those traveling in groups, there are packages for three or more which can be purchased in the different stations. Buses and a suburban railway system will also do.

However if comfort and convenience is a priority, then taking an Athens taxi is the best mode of transportation whilst in the area. You can get one in advance prior to arriving so an itinerary can be planned for you. Getting a package in advance will also garner you discounts. Should you decide to get one from the airport though, you will be paying €30-35 for the single ride and you can negotiate for a taxi tour from there. Taxi tours in Athens is one of the easiest ways to go around in the area. Overall price will depend on what you and your driver will agree to. Be careful when flagging taxis. Some of them may take advantage that you’re a tourist and will not flag down their meters in hopes for getting a bulk price. There are also tariffs involved. Make sure that the Tariff is Tariff 1. Tariff 2 doubles the rate and is applicable after midnight. Make sure to read the driver well. If you think the rate is abnormally high, then check with an English-speaking local to confirm the price.

Make sure also that you’re getting taxis from a reliable company. Although canary yellow taxis are very common in Athens, you will have no hold if the driver tries to fraud you whereas a taxi that hails under a company will be more careful. As common practice, taxis follow two rates, one that applies inside the city limits including the airport and one that applies outside of it. The minimum fare of Rate 1 is €1 while the minimum fare of Rate 2 is €2.65. If you’re from the airport, the fare will start at €3.20 and if there’s heavy luggage involved then a minimum rate will be added to that too.

Taxi tours can be quite tricky but many attest that it’s all worth it considering you get to see the sights of Athens at your own time and pace.

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Best Prices and other details about corner sofa beds

With the smaller spaces that can be found in homes and condominiums, many home owners are thinking of creative ways on how they can have efficient solutions for small areas by using corner sofa bed with storage which have many uses and which they can also decorate. There are many kinds of corner sofa bed that are being sold in the market and this kind of furniture has a double feature that can function well in a bedroom or in a guest room as well.

There are corner sofa bed that has storages which can be placed in your living room and there are also other guides that you can follow in order for you to decorate properly your corner sofa bed and this will be a big help for you. You have to first measure up the size of the room so that you would know the size of the corner sofa bed sale that you are going to purchase for your room and the dimensions of the room should also be defined.

The use of the corner sofa bed is a great solution for maximizing or optimizing the space of the room and you must also learn on how you can rearrange the other furniture that can be found inside the room. There are many kinds of materials for a corner sofa bed and if you want to buy one, you may choose a sofa bed made up of a genuine leather because this is more classy as compared to other kinds of materials.

Fabric material for corner sofa bed is available in the market if you fine the genuine leather material quite expensive and this fabric can also blend in with other designs and colors of furniture that you would want to place in your room together with the corner sofa bed and this would be very helpful for you. You can always buy additional storage with fabric textiles as its cover so that it will be more decorative and colorful when you place it under the cheap corner sofa bed and this is very functional for small space in your room along with other furniture.

If you will buy a corner sofa bed make sure that the base material of your sofa bed is very durable so that it can last for a long time whether the material is a genuine leather of a fabric. Bright colored pillows or cushions can be added to your corner sofa bed if you want to decorate it with something lively and with something that is not that expensive and with this, the decorations will also be pleasing to the eyes.

Discover Precisely How To Help Others Reach Their Career Ambitions

A few people have a natural skill aiding other folks. They could be an excellent person to be able to develop into a career coach as well as to help others achieve their own objectives. To do this, they will desire to make sure they’ll get the right education they’ll need to have to be able to be fully licensed. This way, they’ll have the correct documents in order to display they’re educated and in a position to assist people that have to have assistance with their career.

To develop into a career coach, somebody may desire to use the training that’s accessible to allow them to obtain the proper accreditations that are acknowledged globally as well as get started helping other individuals as quickly as possible. They are going to wish to explore training like the coach training by ECI that permits them to acquire customized education from experts who are going to teach them just how to help any person establish the correct job for them and also exactly how to help them to reach some other targets too. Together with the right training, they are going to be in the position to start a wonderful career as a coach swiftly and also start helping other people without delay.

If perhaps you want to become a coach, make certain you make the most of the training that’s available right now. Have a look at the training programs by Executive Coach International to locate one that is perfect for you and also to be able to begin working away at your following aim right now.